The two sides fought hard in the first half, before the former overcame the scoreless drought in the 43rd minute as star player Alex Teixeira knocked in a rebound after his header was denied by goalkeeper Liu Weiguo.
Real Madrid kept pressing, but Real Sociedad always gave the sensation of danger on the break with winger Ander Barrenetxea a precocious talent on the left.
It took the Argentinian giants until the 87th minute to break the deadlock at the Atanasio Girardot stadium as former Atletico Madrid winger Eduardo Salvio struck his fifth goal of the campaign.
"Both players and staff are disappointed not to be able to get back on the field," US coach Gregg Berhalter said. "While COVID-19 continues to create challenges for us, we are confident we can find a way forward in the near future that will provide an opportunity to play matches in preparation for the important competitions next year."
Qingdao scored the consolation goal from Denis Popovic's penalty in the dying minutes.
Martinez's side are tight in midfield and defense, really dangerous from set pieces and have the experienced Roberto Soldado in attack; this week they have shown last season was no fluke. Enditem
"You did not deserve for them to throw you out like they did. But the truth is that at this stage nothing surprises me anymore."
El Tri and Guatemala have met 33 times, with Mexico winning 21, drawing eight and losing four.
Ibrahimovic was close to finding the net in the 11th minute as his attempt went just inches past the far post after a meandering run in the box.
In Tuesday's statement, Fedefutbol asked its government to "start conversations" to facilitate international fixtures scheduled for October and November.
The 38-year-old broke the deadlock in the 34th minute as Theo Hernandez whipped in a cross from the left and the Swede out-jumped two defenders to steer his powering header into the net.